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Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) Patents and Applications

SNL | ORNL | PNNL

Fiscal Year 2017

Date Filed Title Authors
2017-01-17Polyoxometalate active charge-transfer material for mediated redox flow battery
Patent No. 9,548,509
Publication No. US 20150280259 A1
Application No. 14/569,033

Abstract: Redox flow batteries including a half-cell electrode chamber coupled to a current collecting electrode are disclosed herein. In a general embodiment, a separator is coupled to the half-cell electrode chamber. The half-cell electrode chamber comprises a first redox-active mediator and a second redox-active mediator. The first redox-active mediator and the second redox-active mediator are circulated through the half-cell electrode chamber into an external container. The container includes an active charge-transfer material. The active charge-transfer material has a redox potential between a redox potential of the first redox-active mediator and a redox potential of the second redox-active mediator. The active charge-transfer material is a polyoxometalate or derivative thereof. The redox flow battery may be particularly useful in energy storage solutions for renewable energy sources and for providing sustained power to an electrical grid.

Anderson, T.;
Hudak,

N;
Pratt, H;
Staiger, C.,

2017-02-28High Performance Durable Polymers Including Poly(phenylene)
Patent No. 9,580,541
Application No. 14/933,981

Abstract: The present invention relates to functionalized polymers including a poly(phenylene) structure. In some embodiments, the polymers and copolymers of the invention include a highly localized concentration of acidic moieties, which facilitate proton transport and conduction through networks formed from these polymers. In addition, the polymers can include functional moieties, such as electron-withdrawing moieties, to protect the polymeric backbone, thereby extending its durability. Such enhanced proton transport and durability can be beneficial for any high performance platform that employs proton exchange polymeric membranes, such as in fuel cells or flow batteries.

Anderson, T.;
Fujimoto,

Cy;
Pratt, H,

Fiscal Year 2016

Date Filed Title Authors
2016-12-13Hydrothermal Synthesis of Bismuth Germanium Oxide
Patent No. 9,518,219

Abstract: A method for the hydrothermal synthesis of bismuth germanium oxide comprises dissolving a bismuth precursor (e.g., bismuth nitrate pentahydrate) and a germanium precursor (e.g., germanium dioxide) in water and heating the aqueous solution to an elevated reaction temperature for a length of time sufficient to produce the eulytite phase of bismuth germanium oxide (E-BGO) with high yield. The E-BGO produced can be used as a scintillator material. For example, the air stability and radioluminescence response suggest that the E-BGO can be employed for medical applications.

Boyle, T.,
2016-10-11Low-temperature Nanosolders
Patent No. 9,463,532

Abstract: A nanosolder comprises a first metal nanoparticle core coated with a second metal shell, wherein the first metal has a higher surface energy and smaller atomic size than the second metal. For example, a bimetallic nanosolder can comprise a protective Ag shell "glued" around a reactive Cu nanoparticle. As an example, a 3-D epitaxial Cu-core and Ag-shell structure was generated from a mixture of copper and silver nanoparticles in toluene at temperatures as low as 150 degree C.

Boyle, T.,


Lu, P.,
Vianco, P.,
Chandross, M.,

2016-03-15Polyoxometalate Flow Battery
Patent No. 9,287,578
Publication No. US 20160043425 A1
Application No. 13/760,956

Abstract: Flow batteries including an electrolyte of a polyoxometalate material are disclosed herein. In a general embodiment, the flow battery includes an electrochemical cell including an anode portion, a cathode portion and a separator disposed between the anode portion and the cathode portion. Each of the anode portion and the cathode portion comprises a polyoxometalate material. The flow battery further includes an anode electrode disposed in the anode portion and a cathode electrode disposed in the cathode portion.

Anderson, T.,


Pratt, H.,

2016-02-16Customized electric power storage device for inclusion in a collective microgrid
Patent No. 9,263,894
Publication No. US 20120232709 A1
Application No. 13/481,418

Abstract: An electric power storage device is described herein, wherein the electric power storage device is included in a microgrid. The electric power storage device has at least one of a charge rate, a discharge rate, or a power retention capacity that has been customized for a collective microgrid. The collective microgrid includes at least two connected microgrids. The at least one of the charge rate, the discharge rate, or the power retention capacity of the electric power storage device is computed based at least in part upon specified power source parameters in the at least two connected microgrids and specified load parameters in the at least two connected microgrids.

Robinett, R.,


Wilson, D.,
Goldsmith, S.,

2016-03Cation-enhanced chemical stability of zirconium-based ceramics

Abstract: N/A

Spoerke, E.,


Clem, P.,
Wheeler, J.,
Small, L.,
Ihlefeld, J.,

Fiscal Year 2015

Date Filed Title Authors
2015-10-01Polyoxometalate Active Charge-Transfer Material for Mediated Redox Flow Battery
Patent Application No. US 2015/0280259 A1

Abstract: Redox flow batteries including a half-cell electrode chamber coupled to a current collecting electrode are disclosed herein. In a general embodiment, a separator is coupled to the half-cell electrode chamber. The half-cell electrode chamber comprises a first redox-active mediator and a second redox-active mediator. The first redox-active mediator and the second redox-active mediator are circulated through the half-cell electrode chamber into an external container. The container includes an active charge-transfer material. The active charge-transfer material has a redox potential between a redox potential of the first redox-active mediator and a redox potential of the second redox-active mediator. The active charge-transfer material is a polyoxometalate or derivative thereof. The redox flow battery may be particularly useful in energy storage solutions for renewable energy sources and for providing sustained power to an electrical grid.

Anderson, T.,


Hudak, N.,
Staiger, C.,
Pratt III, H.,

2015-09-24Electrochemical Ion Separation in Molten Salts
Publication No. 20150267316
Application No. 14/660696

Abstract: A purification method that uses ion-selective ceramics to electrochemically filter waste products from a molten salt. The electrochemical method uses ion-conducting ceramics that are selective for the molten salt cations desired in the final purified melt, and selective against any contaminant ions. The method can be integrated into a slightly modified version of the electrochemical framework currently used in pyroprocessing of nuclear wastes.

Spoerke, E.,


Ihlfeld, J.,
Waldrip, K.,
Wheeler, J.,
Brown-Shaklee, H.,
Small, L.,
Wheeler, D.,

2015-09-10Polyarene mediators for mediated redox flow battery
Publication No. US20150255803 A1
Application No. US 14/515,423

Abstract: The fundamental charge storage mechanisms in a number of currently studied high energy redox couples are based on intercalation, conversion, or displacement reactions. With exception to certain metal-air chemistries, most often the active redox materials are stored physically in the electrochemical cell stack thereby lowering the practical gravimetric and volumetric energy density as a tradeoff to achieve reasonable power density. In a general embodiment, a mediated redox flow battery includes a series of secondary organic molecules that form highly reduced anionic radicals as reaction mediator pairs for the reduction and oxidation of primary high capacity redox species ex situ from the electrochemical cell stack. Arenes are reduced to stable anionic radicals that in turn reduce a primary anode to the charged state. The primary anode is then discharged using a second lower potential (more positive) arene. Compatible separators and solvents are also disclosed herein.

Delnick, F.,


Ingersoll, D.,
Liang, C.,

2015-09-10Synthesis of Electroactive Ionic Liquids for Flow Battery Applications
Publication No. US 2015/0255823 A1

Abstract: The present disclosure is directed to synthesizing metal ionic liquids with transition metal coordination cations, where such metal ionic liquids can be used in a flow battery. A cation of a metal ionic liquid includes a transition metal and a ligand coordinated to the transition metal.

Anderson, T.,


Ingersoll, D.,
Staiger, C.,
Pratt, H.,

2015-09-01Synthesis of Electroactive Ionic Liquids for Flow Battery Applications
Patent No. 9,123,943 B1

Abstract: The present disclosure is directed to synthesizing metal ionic liquids with transition metal coordination cations, where such metal ionic liquids can be used in a flow battery. A cation of a metal ionic liquid includes a transition metal and a ligand coordinated to the transition metal.

Anderson, T.,


Ingersoll, D.,
Staiger, C.,
Pratt, H.,

2015-04-14Automatic computation of transfer functions
Patent No. 9009640
International Patent Class: G06F 17/50
Application No. 13/921,110

Abstract: Technologies pertaining to the automatic computation of transfer functions for a physical system are described herein. The physical system is one of an electrical system, a mechanical system, an electromechanical system, an electrochemical system, or an electromagnetic system. A netlist in the form of a matrix comprises data that is indicative of elements in the physical system, values for the elements in the physical system, and structure of the physical system. Transfer functions for the physical system are computed based upon the netlist.

Atcitty, S.,


Watson, L.,

2015-03-12High Power High Efficiency Flow Type Battery
Publication No. US 2015/0072261 A1

Abstract: An electrochemical flow type battery may include at least one electrode and a separator. The electrode may include carbon fibers and/or carbon particles, and has an internal surface area density of at least 1 m2/g. The separator may separate an anode side and a cathode side of the battery. A flat surface of the electrode directly contacts a surface of the separator.

Mench, M.,


...Zawodzinski, T.,
Sun, C.,

2015-01-29Sodium-halogen secondary cell
Publication No. US20150030896 A1
Application No. US 14/511,031

Abstract: A sodium-halogen secondary cell that includes a negative electrode compartment housing a negative, sodium-based electrode and a positive electrode compartment housing a current collector disposed in a liquid positive electrode solution. The liquid positive electrode solution includes a halogen and/or a halide. The cell includes a sodium ion conductive electrolyte membrane that separates the negative electrode from the liquid positive electrode solution. Although in some cases, the negative sodium-based electrode is molten during cell operation, in other cases, the negative electrode includes a sodium electrode or a sodium intercalation carbon electrode that is solid during operation.

Bhavaraju, S.,


Robins, M.,
Eccelston, A.,

2015Method to Synthesize Nanocrystalline Iron Nitride
Provisional Patent Application No. 61/900,908

Abstract: Nanocrystalline iron nitride is an important soft magnetic material; however, conventional methods of production don’t exist. Synthesis of dense nanocrystalline iron nitrides is not possible by simply annealing elemental iron in NH3 at temperatures in excess of 600° C since γ'-Fe4N and other iron nitrides are unstable above 600° C and will decompose. Sandia researchers have discovered that by using a two-step reactive milling process and high pressure spark plasma sintering (SPS) they can quickly and efficiently fabricate bulk γ'-Fe4N parts.

Monson, T.,


Lavernia, E.,
Zheng, B.,
Zhou, Y.,

2015Sodium-Aluminum Battery with Sodium Ion Conductive Ceramic Separator
Provisional Patent 62/171,695

Abstract: N/A

Bhavaraju, S.,
submittedNanofillers for Improved Flywheel Materials

Abstract: N/A

Boyle, Timothy J.,

Lambert, Timothy N., Bell, Nelson S., Celina, Mathias C.,

Fiscal Year 2014

Date Filed Title Authors
SubmittedOxidatively Stable, Fluorinated Hydrocarbons
Technical Advance SD#12691

Abstract:

Fujimoto, C.,
2014-08-19Functionalization of poly (phenylene) by the attachment of sidechains
Patent No. US 8,809,483

Abstract: A composition and an anion exchange membranes including a composition and a method of forming a composition including a compound including a poly(phenylene) backbone represetned by the following formula...

Hibbs, M.,
2014-03-25Polyoxometalate Electron Sponge Cathodes for Higher Capacity Lithium Ion Flow Batteries
Provisional Application No. 61/970,160

Abstract:

Anderson, T.,


Hudak, N.,
Staiger, C.,
Pratt III, H.,

2014-03-06Sodium-Halogen Secondary Cell
Publication No. US20140065456 A1
Application No. US 14/019,651

Abstract: A sodium-halogen secondary cell that includes a negative electrode compartment housing a negative, sodium-based electrode and a positive electrode compartment housing a current collector disposed in a liquid positive electrode solution. The liquid positive electrode solution includes a halogen and/or a halide. The cell includes a sodium ion conductive electrolyte membrane that separates the negative electrode from the liquid positive electrode solution. Although in some cases, the negative sodium-based electrode is molten during cell operation, in other cases, the negative electrode includes a sodium electrode or a sodium intercalation carbon electrode that is solid during operation.

Bhavaraju, S.,


Robins, M.,
Eccelston, A.,

2014-02-25Redox-Active Ligand-Based Transition Metal Complex Flow Batteries
Patent Application No. US 2014/0239906 A1

Abstract: Flow batteries including one or more metals complexed by one or more redox-active ligands are disclosed herein. In a general embodiment, the flow battery includes an electrochemical cell having an anode portion, a cathode portion and a separator disposed between the anode portion and the cathode portion. Each of the anode portion and the cathode portion includes one or more metals complexed by one or more redox-active ligands. The flow battery further includes an anode electrode disposed in the anode portion and a cathode electrode disposed in the cathode portion.

Anderson, T.,


Anstey, M.,
Tomson, N.,

2014-02-05Synthesis of Nanocrystalline Iron Nitrides
Technical Advance SD#13050

Abstract:

Monson, T.,


Lavernia, E.,
Zheng, B.,
Zhou, Y.,

2014Higher Conductivity Na+ Electrolyte

Abstract:

Wachsman, E.,


Hitz, G.,
Lee, K.,

2014Electrochemical Solution Growth of Magnetic Nitrides
Application No. 14/531,075

Abstract: Magnetic nitrides, if manufactured in bulk form, would provide designers of transformers and inductors with a new class of better performing and affordable soft magnetic materials. According to experimental results from thin films and/or theoretical calculations, magnetic nitrides would have magnetic moments well in excess of current state of the art soft magnets. Furthermore, magnetic nitrides would have higher resistivities than current transformer core materials and therefore not require the use of laminates of inactive material to limit eddy current losses. However, almost all of the magnetic nitrides have been elusive except in difficult to reproduce thin films or as inclusions in another material. Now, through its ability to reduce atmospheric nitrogen, the electrochemical solution growth (ESG) technique can bring highly sought after (and previously inaccessible) new magnetic nitrides into existence in bulk form. This method utilizes a molten salt as a solvent to solubilize metal cations and nitrogen ions produced electrochemically and form nitrogen compounds. Unlike other growth methods, the scalable ESG process can sustain high growth rates (~mm/hr) even under reasonable operating conditions (atmospheric pressure and 500 °C). Ultimately, this translates into a high throughput, low cost, manufacturing process. The ESG process has already been used successfully to grow high quality GaN. Below, the experimental results of an exploratory express LDRD project to access the viability of the ESG technique to grow magnetic nitrides will be presented.

Monson, T.,


Waldrip, K.,
Pearce, C.,

2014High performance, durability polymers including poly(phenylene)
Application No. US62/075,693

Abstract: N/A

Fujimoto, C.,

Fiscal Year 2013

Date Filed Title Authors
2013-11-06Electrochemical Solution Growth of Magnetic Nitrides
Provisional Application No. 61/900,908

Abstract:

Monson, T.,


Waldrip, K.,

2013-10-17Design and Development of a Low Cost, Manufacturable High Voltage (HV) Power Module for Energy Storage Systems
Registration No. 42998

Abstract:

Passmore, B.,


Cole, Z.,
McPherson, B.,

2013-10-09NaSICON Membrane Based Na-I2 Battery
Provisional Application No. 61/888,933

Abstract:

Bhavaraju, S.
,
2013-09-10In-situ Restoration of Semiconductor Switch Characteristics
Patent Application No. 14/023,193

Abstract:

Atcitty, S.,


Kaplar, B.,
Marinella, M.,
Smith, M.,

2013-09-06Sodium-Halogen Battery
Provisional Application No. 61/697,608

Abstract:

Bhavaraju, S.
,
2013-06-18Automatic Computation of Transfer Functions
Patent Application No. 13/921,110

Abstract:

Atcitty, S.,


Watson, L.,

2013-03-12Sodium-Halogen Secondary Flow Cell
Provisional Application No. 61/777,967

Abstract:

Bhavaraju, S.
,
2013-02-06Polyoxometalate Flow Battery
Patent Application No. 13/760,956

Abstract:

Anderson, T.,


Pratt III, H.,

Fiscal Year 2012

Date Filed Title Authors
2012-12-15Energy Efficiency Management System and Method
Patent No. US 8,340,832 B1

Abstract: Exemplary embodiments of the computerized management system for controlling energy consumption for energy consumers using a smart meter may include a database that contains contract provisions for energy consumers. Furthermore, exemplary embodiments of the system include a database interface adapted to allow the system to access the contract provisions to optimize energy consumption based upon available energy. The system may also include a managing data component that is adapted to manage data between the database and the smart meter. In exemplary embodiments, a communication network connecting the system to the database and the smart meter may be included. Additionally, some exemplary embodiments of the system include a protocol converting component that is adapted to act as an interface for application programming or protocol converting.

Nacke, B.,


VanDonkelmar, J.,
Borneo, D.,
Justice, T.,
Eiseman, M.,
Holton, A.,
Kasper, C.,

2012-12-12Battery with Bromine or Bromide Electrode and Sodium Selective Membrane
Patent Application No. 61/736,444

Abstract:

 --,
2012-09-25Higher Conductivity NsSICON Electrolyte for Room Temperature Solid-State Sodium Ion Batteries Patent Application No. 61/705,352

Abstract:

Wachsman, E.,


Hitz, G.,
Lee, K.,

2012-08-02Synthesis of Electroactive Ionic Liquids for Flow Battery Applications
Patent Application No. 13/565,619

Abstract:

Anderson, T.,


Ingersoll, D.,
Staiger, C.,
Pratt III, H.,

2012-06Iron Based Flow Batteries
US Patent PCT filing

Abstract:

Wainwright, J.,


Savinell, R.,
Case Western Reserve Univ.,

2011-02-15Poly (phenylene)-based anion exchanged membrane
Patent No. US 7,888,397 B1

Abstract: A poly(phenylene) compound of copolymers that can be prepared with either random or multiblock structures where a first polymer has a repeat unit with a structure of four sequentially connected phenyl rings with a total of 2 pendant phenyl groups and 4 pendant tolyl groups and the second polymer has a repeat unit with a structure of four sequentially connected phenyl rings with a total of 6 pendant phenyl groups. The second polymer has chemical groups attached to some of the pendant phenyl groups selected from CH3, CH2BR, and CH2N (CH3)3BR groups. When at least one group is CH2N(CH3)3BR, the material functions as an anion exchange membrane.

Hibbs, M.
Cornelius,

C.,
Fujimoto, C.,

2009-07-28System and Method for Advance Power Management
Patent No. US 7,567,060 B1

Abstract: A power management system is provided that includes a power supply means comprising a plurality of power supply strings, a testing means operably connected to said plurality of power supply strings for evaluating performance characteristics of said plurality of power supply strings, and a control means for monitoring power requirements and comprising a switching means for controlling switching of said plurality of power supply strings to said testing means.

Atcitty, S.,


Symons, P.,
Butler, P.,
Corey, G.,

2007-07-03Enhanced Distributed Energy Resource System
Patent No. US 7,239,044 B1

Abstract: A power transmission system including a direct current power source electrically connected to a conversion device for converting direct current into alternating current, a conversion device connected to a power distribution system through a junction, an energy storage device capable of producing direct current connected to a converter, where the converter, such as an insulated gate bipolar transistor, converts direct current from an energy storage device into alternating current and supplies the current to the junction and subsequently to the power distribution system. A microprocessor controller, connected to a sampling and feedback module and the converter, determines when the current load is higher than a set threshold value, requiring triggering of the converter to supply supplemental current to the power transmission system.

Atcitty, S.,


Clark, N.,
Boyes, J.,
Ranade, S.,

2002-03-05Optimal Management of Batteries in an Electrical System
Patent No. US 6,353,304 B1

Abstract: An electric system including at least a pair of battery strings and an AC source minimizes the use and maximizes the efficiency of the AC source by using the AC source only to charge all battery strings at the same time. Then one or more battery strings is used to power the load while management, such as application of a finish charge, is provided to one battery string. After another charge cycle, the roles of the battery strings are reversed so that each battery string receives regular management.

Atcitty, S.,


Butler, P.,
Corey, G.,
Symons, P.,






Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) Patents and Applications

SNL | ORNL | PNNL

Fiscal Year 2016

Date Filed Title Authors
2016-03-01Planar High-Density Sodium Battery
Patent No. 9,276,294 B2

Abstract: A method of making a molten sodium batter is disclosed. A first metallic interconnect frame having a first interconnect vent hole is provided. A second metallic interconnect frame having a second interconnect vent hole is also provided. An electrolyte plate having a cathode vent hole and an anode vent hole is interposed between the metallic interconnect frames. The metallic interconnect frames and the electrolyte plate are sealed thereby forming gaseous communication between an anode chamber through the anode vent hole and gaseous communication between a cathode chamber through the cathode vent hole.

Lemmon, J.,


Meinhardt, D.,

2016-02-25Process For Fabrication of Enhanced ß"-Alumina Solid Electrolytes for Energy Storage Devices and Energy Applications
Publication No. US 2016/0056499 A1

Abstract: A dense ß"-alumina/zirconia composite solid electrolyte and process for fabrication are disclosed. The process allows fabrication at temperatures at or below 1600° C. The solid electrolytes include a dense composite matrix of ß"-alumina and zirconia, and one or more transition metal oxides that aid the conversion and densification of precursor salts during sintering. The composite solid electrolytes find application in sodium energy storage devices and power-grid systems and devices and power-grid systems and devices for energy applications.

Lu, X.,


Kim, Y.,
Li, G.,
Meinhardt, K.,
Sprenkle, V.,

2016-02-25Compliant Polymer Seals for Sodium Beta Energy Storage Devices and Process for Sealing Same
Publication No. US 2016/0056424 A1

Abstract: A new compliant polymer seal and process for sealing sodium conducting energy storage devices and batteries are disclosed. Compliant polymer seals become viscous at the operation temperature which seals cathode and anode chambers and other components together following assembly. Seals can accommodate thermal expansion mismatches between selected components during operation.

Li, G.,


Meinhardt, K.,
Lu, X.,
Kim, J.,
Sprenkle, V.,

2016-02-02Hybrid Energy Storage Devices Having Sodium
Patent No. US 9,252,461 B2

Abstract: Sodium energy storage devices employing aspects of both SEBRA batteries and traditional NA-S batteries can perform better than either battery alone. The hybrid energy storage devices described herein can include a sodium anode, a molten sodium salt catholyte, and a positive electrode that has active species containing sulfur. Additional active species can include a transition metal source and NaCl. As a product of the energy discharge process, Na2Sx forms in which x is less than three.

Lu, X.,


Kim, Y.,
Li, G.,
Lemmon, P.,
Sprenkle, V.,

2016-01-12Composite separators and redox flow batteries based on porous separators
Patent No. US 9,236,620

Abstract: Composite separators having a porous structure and including acid-stable, hydrophilic, inorganic particles enmeshed in a substantially fully fluorinated polyolefin matrix can be utilized in a number of applications. The inorganic particles can provide hydrophilic characteristics. The pores of the separator result in good selectivity and electrical conductivity. The fluorinated polymeric backbone can result in high chemical stability. Accordingly, one application of the composite separators is in redox flow batteries as low cost membranes. In such applications, the composite separator can also enable additional property-enhancing features compared to ion-exchange membranes. For example, simple capacity control can be achieved through hydraulic pressure by balancing the volumes of electrolyte on each side of the separator. While a porous separator can also allow for volume and pressure regulation in RFBs that utilize corrosive and/or oxidizing compounds, the composite separators described herein are preferable for their robustness in the presence of such compounds.

Li, B.,


Wei, X.,
Luo, Q.,
Nie, Z.,
Wang, W.,
Sprenkle, V.,

Fiscal Year 2015

Date Filed Title Authors
2015-12-31Redox Flow Battery Based on Supporting Solutions Containing Chloride
Publication No. 20150380757 A1

Abstract: Redox flow battery systems having a supporting solution that contains CI ions can exhibit improved performance and characteristics. Furthermore, a supporting solution having mixed SO42– and CI ions can provide increased energy density and improved stability and solubility of one or more of the ionic species in the catholyte and/or anolyte. According to one example, a vanadium-based redox flow battery system is characterized by an anolyte having V2+ and V3+ in a supporting solution and a catholyte having V4+ and V5+ in a supporting solution. The supporting solution can contain CI ions or a mixture of SO42– and CT ions.

Li, L.,


Kim, S.,
Yang, Z.,
Wang, W.,
Nie, Z.,
Chen, B.,
Zhang, J.,
Xia, G.,

2015-12-15Hybrid anodes for redox flow batteries
Patent No. US 9,214,695

Abstract: RFBs having solid hybrid electrodes can address at least the problems of active material consumption, electrode passivation, and metal electrode dendrite growth that can be characteristic of traditional batteries, especially those operating at high current densities. The RFBs each have a first half cell containing a first redox couple dissolved in a solution or contained in a suspension. The solution or suspension can flow from a reservoir to the first half cell. A second half cell contains the solid hybrid electrode, which has a first electrode connected to a second electrode, thereby resulting in an equi-potential between the first and second electrodes. The first and second half cells are separated by a separator or membrane.

Wang, W.,


Xiao, J.,
Wei, X.,
Liu, J.,
Sprenkle, V.,

2015-12-03High-Energy Density, Nonaqueous, Redox Flow Batteries Having Iodine-Based Species
Publication No. 2015/0349369 A1

Abstract: Nonaqueous redox flow batteries (RFBs) can utilize a metal and a cation of the metal (Mn+) as an active redox couple for a first electrode and electrolyte, respectively, in a first half-cell. The RFBs can also utilize a second electrolyte having I-based species. The I-based species can be selected from the group consisting of I- anions, I2, anions of Ix (x>=3), or combinations thereof. Two different ones of the I-based species compose a second redox active couple in the second half cell.

Li, B.,


Wei, X.,
Nie, Z.,
Wang, W.,
Liu, J.,
Sprenkle, V,

2015-09-08Hybrid energy storage systems utilizing redox active organic compounds
Patent No. US 9,130,218

Abstract: Redox flow batteries (RFB) have attracted considerable interestdue to their ability to store large amounts of power and energy. Non-aqueous energy storage systems that utilize at least some aspects of RFB systems are attractive because they can offer an expansion of the operating potential window, which can improve on the system energy and power densities. One example of such systems has a separator separating first and second electrodes. The first electrode includes a first current collector and volume containing a first active material. The second electrode includes a second current collector and volume containing a second active material. During operation, the first source provides a flow of first active material to the first volume. The first active material includes a redox active organic compound dissolved in a non-aqueous, liquid electrolyte and the second active material includes a redox active metal.

Wang, W.,


Xu, W.,
Li, L.,
Yang, Z.,

2015-09-01Redox flow batteries based on supporting solutions containing chloride
Patent No. US 9,123,931

Abstract: Redox flow battery systems having a supporting solution that contains C1- ions can exhibit improved performance and characteristics. Furthermore, a supporting solution having mixed SO42- and C1- ions can provide increased energy density and improved stability and solubility of one or more of the ionic species in the catholyte and/or anolyte. According to one example, a vanadium-based redox flow battery system is characterized by an anolyte having V2+ and V3+ in a supporting solution and a catholyte having V4+ and V5+ in a supporting solution. The supporting solution can contain C1- ions or a mixture of SO42- and C-1 ions.
*(CIP of US 8,628,880 issued 01-14, 2014)

Li, L.,


Kim, S.,
Yang, Z.,
Wang, W.,
Nie, Z.,
Chen, B.,
Zhang, J.,
Xia, G.,

2015-07-07Redox flow batteries based on supporting solutions containing chloride
Patent No. US 9,077,011

Abstract: Redox flow battery systems having a supporting solution that contains C1- ions can exhibit improved performance and characteristics. Furthermore, a supporting solution having mixed SO42- and C1- ions can provide increased energy density and improved stability and solubility of one or more of the ionic species in the catholyte and/or anolyte. According to one example, a vanadium-based redox flow battery system is characterized by an anolyte having V2+ and V3+ in a supporting solution and a catholyte having V4+ and V5+ in a supporting solution. The supporting solution can contain C1- ions or a mixture of SO42- and C-1 ions.
*(CIP of US 8,628,880 issued 01-14, 2014)

Li, L.,


Kim, S.,
Yang, Z.,
Wang, W.,
Nie, Z.,
Chen, B.,
Zhang, J.,
Xia, G.,

2015-05-28High-Energy-Density, Aqueous, Metal-Polyiodide Redox Flow Batteries
Publication No. US 2015/0147673 A1

Abstract: Improved metal-based redox flow batteries (RFBs) can utilize a metal and a divalent cation of the metal (M2+) as an active redox couple for a first electrode and electrolyte, respectively, in a first half-cell. For example, the metal can be Zn. The RFBs can also utilize a second electrolyte having I-, anions of Ix (for X>=3), or both in an aqueous solution, wherein the I- and the anions of Ix (for X>=3) compose an active redox couple in a second half-cell.

Li, B.,


Nie, Z.,
Wang, W.,
Liu, J.,
Sprenkle, V.,

2015-05-05Nanomaterials for sodium-ion batteries
Patent No. US 9,023,529

Abstract: A crystalline nanowire and method of making a crystalline nanowire are disclosed. The method includes dissolving a first nitrate salt and a second nitrate salt in an acrylic acid aqueous solution. An initiator is added to the solution, which is then heated to form polyacrylatyes. The polyacrylates are dried and calcined. The nanowires show high reversible capacity, enhanced cycleability, and promising rate capability for a battery or capacitor.

Liu, J.,


Cao, Y.,
Xiao, L.,
Yang, Z.,
Wang, W.,
Choi, D.,
Nie, Z.,

Fiscal Year 2014

Date Filed Title Authors
2014-08-28Metallization Pattern on Solid Electrolyte or Porous Support of Sodium Battery Process
Publication No. 2014/0242471 A1

Abstract: A new battery configuration and process are detailed. The battery cell includes a solid electrolyte configured with an engineered metallization layer that distributes sodium across the surface of the electrolyte extending the active area of the cathode in contact with the anode during operation. The metallization layer enhances performance, efficiency, and capacity of sodium batteries at intermediate temperatures at or below about 200° C.

Kim, J.,


Li, G.,
Lu, X.,
Sprenkle, V.,
Lemmon, J.,

2014-08-20Polymer sealing technology for planar ZEBRA batteries (190°C)
Provisional Application No. 14/464,356

Abstract:

Li, G.,


Meinhardt, K.,
Lu, X.,
Kim, J.,
Sprenkle, V.,

2014-08-20Novel Na-FeCl2 Zebra battery
Provisional Application No. 14/464,356

Abstract:

Li, G.,


Kim, J.,
Lu, X.,
Meinhardt, K.,
Sprenkle, V.,

2014-07-17Sodium-Based Energy Storage Device Based on Surface-Driven Reactions
Publication No. US 2014/0199596 A1

Abstract: The performance of sodium-based energy storage devices can be improved according to methods and devices based on surface-driven reactions between sodium ions and functional groups attached to surfaces of the cathode. The cathode substrate, which includes a conductive material, can provide high electron conductivity while the surface functional groups can provide reaction sites to store sodium ions. During discharge cycles, sodium ions will bind to the surface functional groups. During charge cycles, the sodium ions will be released from the surface functional groups. The surface-driven reactions are preferred compared to intercalation reactions.

Shao, Y.,


Liu, J.,
Xiao, J.,
Wang, W.,

2014-07-08Fe-V redox flow batteries
Patent No. US 8,771,856

Abstract: A redox flow battery having a supporting solution that includes Cl anions is characterized by an anolyte having V2+ and V3+ in the supporting solution, a catholyte having Fe2+ and Fe3+ in the supporting solution, and a membrane separating the anolyte and the catholyte. The anolyte and catholyte can have V cations and Fe cations, respectively, or the anolyte and catholyte can each contain both V and Fe cations in a mixture. Furthermore, the supporting solution can contain a mixture of SO4 2− and Cl ¯ anions.

Li, L.,


Kim, S.,
Yang, Z.,
Wang, W.,
Zhang, J.,
Chen, B.,
Nie, Z.,
Xia, G.,

2014-06-06Simultaneous conversion and sintering of beta-alumina
Provisional Application No. 14/465,476

Abstract:

Lu, X.,


Kim, J.,
Li, G.,
Meinhardt, K.,
Sprenkle, V.,

2014-06-06Non-aqueous metal-iodine redox flow battery
Provisional Application No. 14/294,391

Abstract:

Wang, W.,


Li, B.,
Wei, X.,
Shao, Y.,
Liu, J.,
Sprenkle, V.,

2014-05-22Hybrid Anodes for Redox Flow Batteries
Publication No. US 2014/0141291 A1

Abstract: RFBs having solid hybrid electrodes can address at least the problems of active material consumption, electrode passivation, and metal electrode dendrite growth that can be characteristic of traditional batteries, especially those operating at high current densities. The RFBs each have a first half cell containing a first redox couple dissolved in a solution or contained in a suspension. The solution or suspension can flow from a reservoir to the first half cell. A second half cell contains the solid hybrid electrode, which has a first electrode connected to a second electrode, thereby resulting in an equi-potential between the first and second electrodes. the first and second half cells are separated by a separator or membrane.

Wang, W.,


Xiao, H.,
Wei, X.,
Liu, J.,
Sprenkle, V.,

2014-05-20Methods and apparatuses for making cathodes for high-temperature, rechargeable batteries
Patent No. US 8,728,174

Abstract: The approaches for fabricating cathodes can be adapted to improve control over cathode composition and to better accommodate batteries of any shape and their assembly. For example, a first solid having an alkali metal halide, a second solid having a transition metal, and a third solid having an alkali metal aluminum halide are combined into a mixture. The mixture can be heated in a vacuum to a temperature that is greater than or equal to the melting point of the third solid. When the third solid is substantially molten liquid, the mixture is compressed into a desired cathode shape and then cooled to solidify the mixture in the desired cathode shape.

Meinhardt, K.,


Sprenkle, V.,
Coffey, G.,

2014-05-08Apparatuses for Making Cathodes for High-Temperature, Rechargeable Batteries
Publication No. 2014/0127337 A1

Abstract: The approaches and apparatuses for fabricating cathodes can be adapted to improve control over cathode composition and to betteraccommodate batteries of any shape and their assembly. For example, a first solid having an alkali metal halide, a second solid having a transition metal, and a third solid having an alkali metal aluminum halide are combined into a mixture. The mixture can be heated in a vacuum to a temperature that is greater than or equal to the melting point of the third solid. When the third solid is substantially molten liquid, the mixture is compressed into a desired cathode shape and then cooled to solidify the mixture in the desired cathode shape.

Meinhardt, K.,


Sprenkle, V.,
Coffey, G.,

2014-05-08Composite Separators and Redox Flow Batteries Based on Porous Separators
Publication No. 20140127542 A1

Abstract: Composite separators having a porous structure and including acid-stable, hydrophilic, inorganic particles enmeshed in a substantially fully fluorinated polyolefin matrix can be utilized in a number of applications. The inorganic particles can provide hydrophilic characteristics. The pores of the separator result in good selectivity and electrical conductivity. The fluorinated polymeric backbone can result in high chemical stability. Accordingly, one application of the composite separators is in redox flow batteries as low cost membranes. In such applications, the composite separator can also enable additional property-enhancing features compared to ion-exchange membranes. For example, simple capacity control can be achieved through hydraulic pressure by balancing the volumes of electrolyte on each side of the separator. While a porous separator can also allow for volume and pressure regulation, in RFBs that utilize corrosive and/or oxidizing compounds, the composite separators described herein are preferable for their robustness in the presence of such compounds.

Li, B.,


Wei, X.,
Luo, Q.,
Nie, Z.,
Wang, W.,
Sprenkle, V.,

2014-01-28Hybrid anode for lithium based non-aqueous redox flow battery
Provisional Application No. 14/166,389

Abstract:

Wang, W.,


Xiao, J.,
Wei, X.,
Liu, J.,
Sprenkle, V.,

2014-01-23Hybrid Energy Storage Devices having Sodium
Publication No. 2014/0023903 A1

Abstract: Sodium energy storage devices employing aspects of both ZEBRA batteries and traditional Na-S batteries can perform better than either battery alone. The hybrid energy storage devices described herein can include a sodium anode, a molten sodium salt catholyte, and a positive electrode that has active species containing sulfur. Additional active species can include a transition metal source and NaCl. As a product of the energy discharge process, Na2Sx forms in which x is less than three.

Lu, X.,


Kim, J.,
Li, G.,
Lemmon, P.,
Sprenkle, V.,

2014-01-14Redox flow batteries based on supporting solutions containing chloride
Patent No. US 8,628,880

Abstract: Redox flow battery systems having a supporting solution that contains C1- ions can exhibit improved performance and characteristics. Furthermore, a supporting solution having mixed SO42- and C1- ions can provide increased energy density and improved stability and solubility of one or more of the ionic species in the catholyte and/or anolyte. According to one example, a vanadium-based redox flow battery system is characterized by an anolyte having V2+ and V3+ in a supporting solution and a catholyte having V4+ and V5+ in a supporting solution. The supporting solution can contain C1- ions or a mixture of SO42- and C-1 ions.

Li, L.,


Kim, S.,
Yang, Z.,
Wang, W.,
Zhang, J.,
Chen, B.,
Nie, Z.,
Xia, G.,

Fiscal Year 2013

Date Filed Title Authors
2013-12-17Iron-sulfide redox flow batteries
Patent No. US 8,609,270

Abstract: Iron-sulfide redox flow battery (RFB) systems can be advantageous for energy storage, particularly when the electrolytes have pH values greater than 6. Such systems can exhibit excellent energy conversion efficiency and stability and can utilize low-cost materials that are relatively safer and more environmentally friendly. One example of an iron-sulfide RFB is characterized by a positive electrolyte that comprises Fe(III) and/or Fe(II) in a positive electrolyte supporting solution, a negative electrolyte that comprises S2- and/or S in a negative electrolyte supporting solution, and a membrane, or a separator, that separates the positive electrolyte and electrode from the negative electrolyte and electrode.

Xia, G.,


Yang, Z.,
Li, L.,
Kim, S.,
Liu, J.,
Graff, G.,

2013-11-25High energy ultra safe Zinc-Iodide redox flow battery
Provisional Application No. 14/089,499

Abstract:

Li, B.,


Nie, Z.,
Wang, W.
Liu, J.,
Sprenkle, V.,

2013-08-01Intermediate Temperature Sodium Metal-Halide Energy Storage Devices
Publication No. US 2013/0196224 A1

Abstract: Sodium metal-halide energy storage devices utilizing a substituting salt in its secondary electrolyte can operate at temperatures lower than conventional ZEBRA batteries while maintaining desirable performance and lifetime characteristics. According to one example, a sodium metal-halide energy storage device operates at a temperature less than or equal to 200° C, and has a liquid secondary electrolyte having MxNa1-yAlCl4-yHy, wherein M is a metal cation of a substituting salt, H is an anion of the substituting salt, y is a mole fraction of substituted Na and Cl, and x is a ratio of y over r, where r is the oxidation state of M. The melting temperature of the substituting salt is less than that of NaCl.

Kim, J.,


Li, G.,
Lu, X.,
Sprenkle, V.,
Lemmon, J.,
Yang, Z.,
Coyle, C.,

2013-07-23Hybrid Energy Storage Devices Having Sodium
Provisional Application No. 13/948,857

Abstract:

Lu, X.,


Kim, J.,
Li, G.,
Lemmon, J.,
Sprenkle, V.,

2013-10-17Ionic Conductive Chromophores and Nonaqueous Redox Flow Batteries
Publication No. 2013/0273459 A1

Abstract: Ionic conductive chromophore can be used as the positive electrolytes for high-energy density, nonaqueous redox flow battery (NRFB) systems. The nonaqueous nature of the NRFB systems allow for high operation voltage (compared to aqueous systems). Furthermore, the structure modifications to chromophores described herein improve the soubility of the resultant ionic conductive chromophores, thereby allowing them to be used in flow cell configurations.

Xu, W.,


Cosimbescu, L.,
Wei, X.,
Wang, W.,
Sprenkle, V.,

2013-10-03Energy Storage Systems Having an Electrode Comprising LixSy
Publication No. 20130260204 A1

Abstract: Improved lithium-sulfur energy storage systems can utilizes LixSy as a component in an electrode of the system. For example, the energy storage system can include a first electrode current collector, a second electrode current collector, and an ion-permeable separator separating the first and second electrode current collectors. A second electrode is arranged between the second electrode current collector and the separator. A first electrode is arranged between the first electrode current collector and the separator and comprises a first condensed-phase fluid comprising LixSy. The energy storage system can be arranged such that the first electrode functions as a positive or a negative electrode.

Xiao, J.,


Zhang, J.,
Graff, G.,
Liu, J.,
Wang, W.,
Zheng, J.,
Xu, W.,
Shao, Y.,
Yang, Z.,

2013-06-18Metal Flouride Electrode Protection Layer and Method of Making Same
Publication No. 2013/0095386 A1

Abstract: Modifications to the surface of an electrode and/or the surfaces of the electrode material can improve battery performance. For example, the modifications can improve the capacity, rate capability and long cycle stability of the electrode and/or may minimize undesirable catalytic effects. In one instance, metal-ion batteries can have an anode that is coated, at least in part, with a metal flouride protection layer. The protection layer is preferably less than 100 nm in thickness.

Xu, W.,


Wang, W.,
Yang, Z.,
Zhang, J.,
Choi, D.,

2013-05-28Lithium-ion batteries with titania/graphene anodes
Patent No. US 8,450,014

Abstract: Lithium ion batteries having an anode comprising at least one graphene layer in electrical communication with titania to form a nanocomposite material, a cathode comprising a lithium olivine structure, and an electrolyte. The graphene layer has a carbon to oxygen ratio of between 15 to 1 and 500 to 1 and a surface area of between 400 and 2630 m2/g. The nanocomposite material has a specific capacity at least twice that of a titania material without graphene material at a charge/discharge rate greater than about 10 C. The olivine structure of the cathode of the lithium ion battery of the present invention is LiMPO4 where M is selected from the group consisting of Fe, Mn, Co, Ni and combinations thereof.

Liu, J.,


Choi, D.,
Yang, Z.,
Wang, D.,
Graff, G.,
Nie, Z.,
Viswanathan, V.,
Zhang, J.,
Xu, W.,
Kim, J.,

2013-05-28Low cost, high performance Li-ion batteries for renewable and utility applications
Patent No. US 8,450,014

Abstract:

Liu, J.,


Choi, D.,
Yang, Z.,
Wang, D.,
Graff, G.
Nie, Z.,
Viswanathan, V.,
Zhang, J.,
Xu, W.,
Kim, J.,

2013-03-27A crossover-free nonaqueous redox flow battery utilize solid-state ionic conductive membranes
Provisional Application No. 61/805,734

Abstract:

Xu, W.,


Wang, W.,
Lu, X.,
Sprenkle, V.,

2013-02-25Metallization layer on the solid electrolyte of Na batteries
Provisional Application No. 13/776,262

Abstract:

Kim, J.,


Li, G.,
Lu, X.,
Sprenkle, V.
Lemmon, J.,

2013-01-29Intermediate Temperature Sodium Metal-Halide Energy Storage Devices
Provisional Application No. 13/752,936

Abstract:

Li, L.,


Kim, J.,
Li, G.,
Lu, X.,
Lemmon, J.,
Sprenkle, V.,

2013-01-14Sodium-Based Energy Storage Device Based on Surface-Driven Reactions
Provisional Application No. 13/740,878

Abstract:

Shao, Y.,


Liu, J.,
Xiao, J.,
Wang, W.,

Fiscal Year 2012

Date Filed Title Authors
2012-11-05Composite Separators and Redox Flow Batteries Based on Porous Separators
Provisional Application No. 13/668,604

Abstract:

Wei, X.,


Lu, Q.,
Li, B.,
Nie, Z.,
Wang, W.,
Sprenkle, V.,

2012-05-18Nanomaterials for sodium-ion batteries
Provisional Application No. 13/474,963

Abstract:

Liu, J.,


Cao, Y.,
Xiao, L.,
Yang, Z.,
Wang, W.,
Choi, D.,
Nie, Z.,

2012-05-03Redox Flow Batteries Based on Supporting Solutions Comprising A Mixture of Acids
Publication No. US 2012/0107660 A1

Abstract: Redox flow battery systems having a supporting solution that contains Cl" ions can exhibit improved characteristics. Furthermore, a supporting solution having mixed SO42- and Cl- ions can provide increased energy density and improved stability and solubility of one or more of the ionic species in the catholyte and/or anolyte. According to one example, a vanadium-based redox flow battery system is characterized by an anolyte having V2+ and V3+ in a supporting solution and a catholyte having V4+ and V5+ in a supporting solution. The supporting solution can contain Cl- ions or a mixture of SO42- and Cl- ions.

Li, L.,



Kim, S.,
Yang, Z.,
Wang, W.,
Zhang, J.,
Chen, B.,
Nie, Z.,
Xia, G.,

2012-04-12Planar High Density Sodium Battery
Publication No. 20120088133 A1

Abstract: A method of making a molten sodium battery is disclosed. A first metallic interconnect frame having a first interconnect vent hole is provided. A second metallic interconnect frame having a second interconnect vent hole is also provided. An electrolyte plate having a cathode vent hole and an anode vent hole is interposed between the metallic interconnect frames. The metallic interconnect frames and the electrolyte plate are sealed thereby forming gaseous communication between an anode chamber through the anode vent hole and gaseous communication between a cathode chamber through the cathode vent hole.

Lemmon, J.,


Meinhardt, K.,

2012-04-04Hybrid Energy Storage Systems Utilizing Redox Active Organic Compounds
Provisional Application No. 13/439,083

Abstract:

Wang, W.,


Xu, W.,
Yang, Z.,
Li, L.,

2012-04-04Hybrid Anodes for Redox Flow Batteries
Provisional Application No. 13/439,083

Abstract:

Wang, W.,


Xu, W.,
Yang, Z.,
Li, L.,

2012-03-29Redox Flow Batteries Having Multiple Exectroactive Elements
Publication No. US 2012/0077068 A1

Abstract: Introducing multiple redox reactions with a suitable voltage range can improve energy density of redox flow battery (RFB) systems. One example includes RFB systems utilizing multiple redox pairs in the positive half cell, the negative half cell, or in both. Such RFB systems can have a negative electrolyte, a positive electrolyte, and a membrane between the negative electrolyte and the positive electrolyte, in which at least two electrochemically active elements exist in the negative electrolyte, the positive electrolyte, or both.

Wang, W.,


Li, L.,
Yang, Z.,
Nie, Z.,

Fiscal Year 2011

Date Filed Title Authors
2011-12-28Redox Flow Batteries Based on Supporting Solutions Comprising a Mixture of Acids
Provisional Application No. 13/338,791

Abstract:

Li, L.,


Kim, S.,
Yang, Z.,
Wang, W.,
Zhang, J.,
Chen, B.,
Nie, Z.,
Xia, G.,

2011-10-12Metal Fluoride Electrode Protection Layer and Method of Making Same
Provisional Application No. 13/271,931

Abstract:

Xu, W.,


Wang, W.,
Yang, Z.,
Zhang, J.,
Choi, D.,

2011-09-27Planar high density sodium battery
Provisional Application No. 13/246,375

Abstract:

Lemmon, J.,


Meinhardt, K.,

2011-09-27Redox Flow Batteries Having Multiple Electroactive Elements
Provisional Application No. 13/246,444

Abstract:

Wang, W.,


Li, L.
Yang, Z.,
Nie, Z.,






Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) Patents and Applications

SNL | ORNL | PNNL

Fiscal Years 2011 through 2015

Date Filed Title Authors
2015-03-03Electrolyte for High Energy Density Ultracapacitors
Provisional Application No. 62/127,340

Abstract:

Nanda,
Delnick,


Sun,
Ruther,

2014-09-08Nitrocatalyst and Process for Nitrogen Reduction
Provisional Application No. 62047383,
Docket SD-13272.0/S-136369

Abstract:

Delnick,
Liang,


Vieth,
Narula,

2014-04Mediated Redox Flow Battery
Provisional Application No. 14515423,
Docket SD-13042.1/S-132932

Abstract:

Delnick,
Ingersoll,


Liang,

2011-09-27Battery has electrode whose flat surface directly contacts surface of separator separating anode side and cathode side
Patent No. US2015072261-A1

Abstract:

Mench, M.,


Zawodzinski, T.,
Sun, C.,