Effect of Ambient Gas Density

High-Speed Schlieren Movies of Diesel Sprays
Parameter Low Density High Density
Ambient O2 [%] 21 21
Ambient Temperature [K] 1000 1000
Ambient Density [kg/m3] 14 58
ΔPinj [MPa] 136 137
Orifice Diameter [mm] 0.260 0.260
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Fuel is #2 diesel fuel. Injector tip to wall is 109 mm.

The spray penetration rate decreases with increasing ambient density (Naber, 1996) because of higher momentum exchange with the ambient.