The Biological and Materials Sciences Center at Sandia National Laboratories includes two organizations located in Albuquerque, NM: the Bioenergy & Defense Technologies and Nanobiology departments. These two groups support mission areas in biodefense, emerging infectious disease, and biofuels. Scientists in the Bioenergy & Defense Technologies group conduct fundamental research in cell biology, immunology, microbiology, and metabolic engineering, largely through the development and use of advanced measurement technologies such as fluorescence microscopy, vibrational spectroscopies, and chemometric data analysis tools. The Nanobiology group includes expertise in nanomaterials, molecular-level computational modeling, and protein interactions and mechanisms. Research projects include understanding receptor activation and cell signaling processes, pathogenesis, plant physiology, cellulase enzymes, metabolic engineering for biofuel and biosensing applications, algal biochemistry and cultivation characterization for biofuels applications, and nanoparticle development. We conduct research for the National Institutes of Health, Basic Energy Sciences, the Department of Homeland Security, the Department of Defense, the Bioenergy Technologies Office, U.S. Industry, and Sandia's Laboratory Directed Research & Development program.