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[Sandia Lab News]

Vol. 55, No. 24           November 28, 2003
[Sandia National Laboratories]

Albuquerque, New Mexico 87185-0165    ||   Livermore, California 94550-0969
Tonopah, Nevada; Nevada Test Site; Amarillo, Texas

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The Kauai Test Facility . . . Sandia's western-most outpost Kauai Test Facility crew thrives in trying circumstances 3-2-1 . . . Countdown can be a pressure cooker Then and now: KTF contributions have evolved with changing national security needs Gas-plume imager scans refineries in field testing



The Kauai Test Facility . . . Sandia's western-most outpost

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All Kauai Test Facility stories by John German

200 beachfront acres on the western shore of the island of Kauai, Hawaii.

A dozen people -- mostly contractors -- work here year-round. But when a missile needs launching, 75 Sandians might report to work here in a single day. Some fly out weeks early. Others spend just a few nights.

For more than 40 years dating back to 1962, when the US and Soviet Union were trading atmospheric nuclear tests in a volley of Cold War-style one-upmanship, Sandians have visited here to conduct rocket flight test experiments, from offensive and defensive weapons testing to atmospheric studies and high-tech star gazing.

Now, as the United States works to develop a defensive capability against missile attacks, KTF is making steady progress in solidifying a reputation as a national test asset.

Here is a glimpse of life at KTF during one recent countdown, and the exceptional service in the national interest rendered at Sandia's western-most outpost.

The series of articles appears below.

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Kauai Test Facility crew thrives in trying circumstances

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"FM-5?" asks the backlit shape of the uniformed sentry.

FM-5 is shorthand for the missile defense launch I have been invited here to see. At this dark hour, launch preparations are the only thing happening on the US Navy's Pacific Missile Range Facility (PMRF).

He cross-checks my credentials with the FM-5 guest list, then motions me to pass through a heavily fortified gate.

Three miles north, at the end of the Navy base's winding main road, a single fluorescent light illuminates a sign, framed in the familiar Sandia blue: "Sandia National Laboratories, Kauai Test Facility, Operated for the US

Department of Energy."

Trailer city

Dean Manning (15419), team supervisor at KTF, climbs out of a red SUV, Hawaii license plate KTF-MGR, and meets me at the main office, a three-room trailer at the top of wooden stairs.

It's 1:15 a.m., but we are not the first to arrive. Five cars are parked in front of a brightly lit cluster of more than two-dozen aging but well-maintained trailers, all connected by white-painted wooden decking that raises "trailer city's" floor four feet off the ground. A half-acre corrugated metal roof held high by square steel poles -- no walls -- covers this indoor village.

I have flown 4,000 miles and driven 30 miles across an island paradise, and I still haven't seen a thing. It's pitch black out there, except for a ring of lights that bathes a large white tent -- Launch Pad 1 -- about 400 yards to the southwest. Underneath the tent, says Dean, is the rocket.

A generator hums, and lazy waves slap against an unseen shore.

Weather watching

We stop at the site's coffee pot and head down a flight of stairs and into the bunker-walled Launch Operations Building, referred to as the el-oh-bee (LOB), one of a few permanent buildings at the site.

Originally KTF was a mobile launch facility, hence the trailers. But in the late 1980s a major upgrade was undertaken with funds allocated during President Reagan's Strategic Defense Initiative. The permanent buildings are a result of that upgrade. (See "Then and now ..." on page 9.)

Inside the LOB, Dave Salguero (15414) and Ed Mader (15419) preside over a wall of knobs and screens displaying squiggly lines that describe the ascent of a weather balloon launched a few hours earlier, one of three planned for today.

Here, at about 30,000 feet (Dave points out a leftward jut), the balloon encountered winds, the jet stream. Expected, he says, but high winds, particularly those that might carry rocket debris toward land or shipping lanes, could scrub a launch.

Telling the launch story

It's 2:30 a.m., and more people are arriving at the LOB now. Wilson Brooks (15419) and Shawn Garcia (2661) are in the data acquisition room troubleshooting a problem with a spaghetti dinner of connector cables. Wilson is an experienced hand at KTF. This is Shawn's first trip, but he's clearly been around racks of equipment before.

At launch, numerous data streams will flow into these racks from various radars, trackers, and on-rocket telemetry systems, to be recorded and re-routed to other KTF stations. A single 3-1/2-minute rocket flight can generate many gigabytes of data, all synced to universal time code, says Wilson. This data will tell the story of the launch.

In the LOB's control room, Walt Rutledge (15414 Manager) and Marc Kniskern (15414) pore over atmospheric data they're getting from the balloon and from various weather web sites. They are part of Sandia's flight safety crew, and their job is to advise PMRF on range safety conditions prior to launch. The Navy has ultimate authority to make and enforce flight safety decisions.

Safety in numbers

Walt and Marc use probabilistic risk assessment techniques and models, running calculations on their laptops and on faraway supercomputers to determine the relative risks of the launch. They generate casualty-expectation estimates in the event of a launch mishap -- in stark terms, if the rocket exploded before or after launch, or if it malfunctioned and had to be destroyed in mid-flight by launch controllers.

They use breakup models to predict the number and sizes of pieces of rocket debris following a hypothetical intercept or intentional destruct to produce impact probability contours -- maps of the Pacific overlaid with swaths of bright colors representing zones of risk. Other factors, such as commercial air and shipping traffic and the number of visitors to a nearby public beach, must be watched as well, says Walt.

"There are millions of hypothetical situations and possibilities to be aware of," he says. "Our job is to consider all the things that can go wrong, backed up by analysis, to ensure that the test is as safe as possible for the public and test participants."

As real as it gets

It's 4 a.m. Al Lopez (15419 Manager) runs a meeting of 25 people representing the parties participating in today's practice launch -- emissaries from Sandia, Orbital Sciences Corp., the Navy, Air Force, and Army, and from various other defense subcontractors, including a hush-hush group whose work no one talks about.

Today is only a dress rehearsal, but the room is electric.

In 25 minutes, a 5-1/2-hour countdown begins. It will be the final full "sim count" before the real launch two days from now. The FM-5 team, today about 75 people, will work through every procedure except launching the rocket.

The team already has conducted a dozen smaller simulations, including "off nominal" scenarios when mock obstacles are fed into the system by computer, testing the team's ability to overcome them.

"Today we put it all together," says Dean. "This is as real as it gets."

Pitching it down the middle

For this test, KTF is providing launch support, but the pressure is on Orbital. In two days, if all goes well, Orbital program manager Joe Dimaggio and his team will watch the fruit of their labor blast into the atmosphere.

Then they'll watch the monitors in the control room, anxiously, for evidence that their baby has been destroyed in space by a Navy SM-3 interceptor rocket launched from a Navy destroyer 250 kilometers northwest of the island. Orbital's objective is to provide a "good target" -- a rocket pitched at the proper trajectory and velocity right over the plate, an imaginary exoatmospheric batter's box that is 6 miles high by 6 miles wide by 54 miles long, 55 miles above the Pacific.

Lists of checklists

Revision 4 of the official countdown is handed out. It lists launch tasks along with the organization or person that must carry out each action on queue for the launch to proceed. (See "Countdown can be a pressure cooker" below.)

There are some 550 actions on KTF's list, ranging from pre-launch battery checks to confirming burnout of the rocket's boosters one minute after liftoff. The actions will be carried out during the six-hour countdown and the 3-1/2-minute rocket flight -- some in rapid-fire succession, others during slow periods.

But Sandia's list represents only a fraction of the FM-5 mission. PMRF's separate checklist contains some 800 tasks. A Navy crew on board the destroyer will follow its own similarly complex countdown.

At 4:25 an electronic male voice reports over the PA system: "All range personnel report to your stations. All unnecessary personnel clear the launch pad now."

It's T minus 5:30:00. Dean and Steve Lautenschleger (15406), at the control console in the LOB, begin radio roll call.

Beauty in launch

The sun is up, and I accompany launch photographer Diana Helgesen (15419) into the fenced launch pad area. Diana needs to run systems checks on her 10 cameras, which sit in the sun for days. Come launch day, they must work.

Minutes after launch Diana will rush into her trailer darkroom, choose an official FM-5 launch photo, and print copies for the newspapers. More important, her photos become part of the documentation package KTF offers its customers.

"I try to get something that's unusual, something someone is proud to hang on their wall," she says. "I try to put a little beauty in that launch."

She moves quickly from camera to camera to minimize the time she spends near the pad. Access is restricted during the countdown due to the multiple hazards out here, including 250 pounds of high explosives and four tons of rocket propellant.

Dry like New Mexico

On the way to a camera station we pass Roy Apo and Sharon Cabral (both 15419), members of the full-time contractor crew here, as they prepare a balloon for launch. They have tied on reflectors and GPS locators that allow the balloon to be tracked until it expands and finally pops, at about 120,000 feet.

Three hundred feet away Andy Jones (2333) trains a radar dish on the balloon. Roy releases, and the balloon ascends. Sharon's walkie-talkie crackles as Andy reports that the radar has a valid radar track.

Except for the ocean view and the sugar cane fields east of the Navy base, this could be south-central New Mexico. It's dry on this side of the island. Scraggly thickets of kiawe, a form of mesquite, cover high sand dunes that border the launch site. A volcanic outcropping to the north, Makaha Ridge, resembles a black mesa. Mt. Waialeale, a steep green cone to the northeast, overlooks this half of the island.

The sandy shoreline is less than a football field from Pad 1. It is some of the best beach in Hawaii, says Diana, but access is restricted, except to the sneaky.

Tent to trailer

We return to the LOB, but in seconds I am headed out with pad chief Eva Renninger (15419) in a fast red golf cart. A dozen contractors, big guys driving trucks and forklifts and wearing NFL-team-logoed hard hats, fall in behind.

We stop at Pad 1. Before my feet hit the ground members of the pad crew are hurriedly unlatching tie wires and disconnecting air conditioning ducts and positioning a forklift next to the tent. They fold up one end of the tent accordion style and lift the whole thing up on wheels.

As they pull the tent away, the rocket emerges. It is in its horizontal position, affixed to a large rail launcher, and aimed right at the nearby sand dune. A small American flag taped to the rocket's nose tip slaps in the breeze.

When I return to the LOB 12 minutes later, Dean and Steve are remotely raising the launcher to its upward position, watching the rocket on a video screen as they adjust the azimuth and elevation within tenths of a degree.

Pre-launch pressure

At T-minus 46 minutes Eva and Norm Corlis (15419) head out to the launch pad one last time to install the arming plug, a step that provides the electrical power to the rocket needed to initiate the launch sequence. They return to the LOB and return the key, which is kept in a lockbox as a safety precaution.

At T-minus 40 minutes the "terminal count" begins -- the final and most critical run-up to launch. Dean and Steve are feeling some pressure.

We are on schedule, says Dean. No anomalies so far. This is good, he says, but the team is taking nothing for granted.

"We start to get tense during this part of the sim," says Dean, "and it's not even real. Actually, I get nervous just typing the countdown."

Finally it's launch time. The automated PA voice reports 3 . . . 2 . . . 1. Everything is nominal and the team follows an imaginary rocket into space and reports its imaginary destruction.

While the rocket is in flight, KTF team members receive and record telemetry information from the rocket, provide useful real-time data displays, and capture launch video.

Four minutes later, people are scattering from the control room.

"There's still a lot to do," says Steve. "There's a missile on the pad. We have to safe it and get it ready for Wednesday." (See "Countdown can be a pressure cooker below.")

But the KTF team has passed every one of its tests. They're ready.

Blessing the rocket

Tomorrow a limited staff will convene and run through a series of mini sims.

Father Tom, a local Hawaiian priest, will bless the rocket from the roof of the LOB with a small contingent from PMRF and KTF present. Many years ago locals requested the ceremony out of reverence for native Hawaiian burial grounds on the site. Now it's tradition. A prayer is orated, and salt is scattered to ward off evil spirits.

"No rocket leaves this base without being blessed by a native priest," says Al.

At 2 p.m. Al sends everyone home for a good night's rest. He'll stay. There is unconfirmed word that the Director of the Missile Defense Agency, Lt. Gen. Ronald Kadish, USAF, the ultimate customer for this test, is on the island and might visit KTF this afternoon. -- John German

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3-2-1 . . . Countdown can be a pressure cooker

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On launch day, the LOB is a hive of activity as the KTF team focuses on the highly complex work of launching a target missile for a missile defense test.

Out on a launch pad a thousand feet away sits a rocket containing high explosives and thousands of pounds of rocket fuel. Safety is job one. But there are other priorities.

The world is watching. Generals, legislators, critics, the president, and the world's bad guys all have a stake in the outcome of the work that takes place here today.

The roster of people allowed to remain on-site has been pared down to 55 people for safety reasons. The 55 includes VIPs who are here to observe the test.

A 10 a.m. to 2 p.m. launch window, defined in part by the fly-by schedules of orbiting satellites, provides a finite deadline for getting the job done.

The test's international profile, high safety standards, and unforgiving schedule add up to a great deal of stress for the KTF launch team, says Jerry McDowell, Director of Aerospace Systems Development Center 15400.

"I can't say enough about the professionalism of the Sandia KTF team," he says. "They are remarkably adept at balancing the needs and demands of customers with responsible management of one of Sandia's most valuable assets, all in the midst of a fishbowl of oversight and intrusive requirements."

"Somehow, they always manage to keep one eye on the customer's wish list and the other on being good stewards of Sandia people and property and good neighbors to the Navy," he says. "They can be counted on to execute safely, securely, and responsibly."

Control team

At the helm -- a console atop a raised floor at the back of the LOB's control room -- sit Dean Manning, Steve Lautenschleger, and Al Lopez.

Dean serves as the intra-range test director, communicating with KTF personnel and verifying completion of a torrent of on-screen launch tasks.

Steve serves as the supervisor of test operations (STO), the inter-range point of contact who communicates KTF's progress to the PMRF launch team stationed in a similar control room two miles south. PMRF is the lead test range for this launch.

Al assumes the role of troubleshooter, moving about the LOB helping solve problems and readying contingencies in case something goes wrong.

Accumulation of problems

At T-minus 3:30:00, launch operations are suspended for an hour because a cargo freighter wanders into the impact zone. PMRF tries to hail the captain.

PMRF pushes back the launch time by an hour, then two as the Navy realizes that because of the delay, two of its observatory aircraft will need to land and refuel.

Then Orbital has a problem -- it can't talk to the target missile's navigation system. Could be an electronics problem or a cable connection. Orbital's engineers pull out the circuit designs. Someone needs to visit the pad to check the connection. Orbital program manager Joe Dimaggio lets go one of his trademark incendiary outbursts.

Later something, perhaps rogue radio traffic, is interfering with KTF range communications. "Somebody's walking all over us," says Dave Salguero.

Game on

A few minutes later Orbital overcomes the electrical problem, but KTF's countdown computers lock up. Another setback could scrub the launch for today. What's worse -- it could be KTF's fault.

Dave, Wilson Brooks, and Kenny Abigania (15419) work some magic, and the computers are up. The cable connection is fixed, the radios are working, and the freighter is gone. But KTF is 20 minutes behind PMRF's count.

"If the coffee doesn't wake you up, some red on your computer screen will," says Dean. Red highlighting denotes launch tasks that haven't been completed on schedule.

"No problem," he says. "We practiced this. We can catch up."

Steve is stoic, but Dean's feet do a nervous tap dance under his chair.

The two speak quickly and clearly into their headsets as they plow through the count list, checking off tasks, gaining ground. At T-minus 40 minutes the red is gone and KTF is back on schedule.

Here at last

Al smiles. "There's an old rocketeer's superstition," he says. "The ones that beat you up the worst are the ones that fly the straightest."

"Range is green, sensors green, ship is green," reports PMRF over the radio.

Finally, at 1:30 p.m., the final count . . . 5 . . . 4 . . . 3 . . . 2 . . .

1 . . . .

From where I now sit, one mile south of the launch pad next to a tracking telescope operated by Hovey Corbin (15419), I see white smoke engulf the lower half of the rocket. Then the missile slowly rises, picks up speed. Blue pieces of Styrofoam from an external cooling chamber slough off and slalom down.

The roar reaches us.

The white contrail curls like a gift ribbon against a clear blue sky, and the missile is out of sight.

The radio crackles: "Target away . . . telemetry good . . . radar good . . . TM track good . . . trajectory is nominal . . . cross range is nominal

. . . motor pressure nominal . . . we have target burnout." Then more silence. It's T+60 seconds.

"We have a good target," reports Steve's voice over the radio.

"Roger that. Good target," reports PMRF. That's the signal: KTF has accomplished its part of the mission. Now the KTF team sits back and listens.

'Mark India'

Hovey switches to auto track, and the telescope robotically follows the rocket's expected trajectory, still shooting video and pulling film at 100 frames per second. He doubts we will be able to see the intercept -- too far away -- but you never know.

"If something goes wrong, we'd like to document what happened," says Hovey.

Another countdown . . . 3 . . . 2

. . . 1 . . . and we're told the interceptor is away from the Navy cruiser 250 miles downrange.

Thirty seconds later a third countdown marks the anticipated intercept.

Then silence. Hovey and Diana Helgesen exchange looks. We should have heard "Mark India" -- the official designation for an intercept. We didn't.

Something went wrong. No intercept.

Good news and bad

Back at Pad 1, the smell of rocket propellant hangs in the air like 1,000 just-popped firecrackers. People are picking up debris. Some are pocketing small pieces as souvenirs. The faces tell the story. There is relief, but no one is smiling.

Sandia provided as good a target as possible. But there's disappointment the overall mission did not succeed.

Getting ready for the next launch

At this point, no one knows for sure what happened up there. That will come later, after a lot of study of the data, much of it provided by KTF, perhaps. The good news is that the customer will learn something from the test.

The ceremony is brief. Already trucks and people are moving toward Pad 15, where the

FM-5 backup rocket, identical to the one just launched, sits under a tent. The KTF team will move it indoors and prepare it to be the primary target for the next mission, FM-6, scheduled for December.

It is the continuation of a cycle that has continued for 30-plus years at KTF, that has resulted in the launches of more than 350 rockets, and that has involved many hundreds of Sandians. -- John German

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Then and now: KTF contributions have evolved with changing national security needs

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During KTF's 41-year history, more than 350 rockets have been launched from the site. But KTF's work has always waxed and waned with the political winds and national security priorities of the day, says Dick Hay, Manager of Range Integration and Lab Support Dept. 15406, who served as KTF's on-site manager from 1990 to 2002.

In September 1961, following a three-year atmospheric nuclear test moratorium between the US and Soviet Union, the Soviets abruptly resumed testing, conducting 45 tests in two months. The US found itself flat-footed -- unprepared to quickly resume its own program.

Congress demanded a response, and the US weapons community began preparations for Operation Dominic, a series of atmospheric and exoatmospheric nuclear tests conducted at and launched from islands in the Pacific south and southwest of Kauai.

Barking Sands

By early 1962 the Atomic Energy Commission had acquired the use of part of a military reservation on western Kauai known as Barking Sands. From the site Sandia launched diagnostic rockets to measure the effects of the 29 Operation Dominic air bursts and five Dominic Fishbowl high altitude tests conducted in 1962.

The Barking Sands site later became the Kauai Test Facility.

In 1963, the US and Russia entered into an atmospheric test ban treaty that again outlawed above-ground nuclear tests and closed down KTF. But the US Senate, as part of the treaty's ratification, required that the US maintain a readiness to conduct such tests, and KTF was rebuilt in 1964. Much of KTF's maintenance funding continued under this readiness umbrella until 1976.

During the late '70s and early '80s, KTF was kept active by three launches of the developmental

Sandia Winged Energetic Reentry Vehicle (SWERVE), a DOE- and DoD-funded technology demonstration intended to provide precision delivery through use of a maneuvering reentry vehicle, says Dick.

Star Wars revival

In the mid '80s the Reagan administration sought to revive rocket launch capabilities for the Strategic Defense Initiative development program, and KTF was modernized. In 1990 the site got a new launch pad, new electronics, new computer systems, and several permanent buildings, he says.

The upgrade included a 54-foot missile service tower to accommodate vertical launches of large missiles. Four Strategic Target System (STARS) three-stage missiles were launched at KTF from 1991 through 1996.

A fifth STARS launch from KTF is being planned, according to STARS program manager Eric Schindwolf, Manager of Missile & Flight Systems Dept. 15425.

Missile defense

The missile defense mission brought other new work to KTF in the 1980s and 1990s, including a series of countermeasures experiments and target discrimination experiments for which several diagnostic rockets were launched from Kauai, says Dick.

During the early '90s KTF supported periodic scientific experiments, a nuclear depth-bomb test series, ionospheric studies being managed by

Los Alamos National Lab, and space-based sensor development projects for various agencies.

In the late '90s KTF provided launch support for a steady stream of missile defense missions and in 1998 began to support Navy Aegis Ballistic Missile Defense tests such as FM-5 by launching missiles that simulate enemy offensive systems. That work continues. (See "KTF's future a moving target" below.)

Some tests more difficult

Among the more complicated flight tests Sandia has supported was the MSX mission in 1996, one of the STARS launches. The missile carried 26 experiment packages that were released into space in a timed sequence.

Strypi-Lace, another complicated and successful mission in 1991, required that KTF launch a Strypi rocket into space over Maui, where its trajectory paralleled that of an orbiting satellite that gathered data about the plume created by the Strypi's burning third stage motor.

Close coordination with NASA was key as the KTF team attempted to insert the rocket into the exact space and time required to "rendevous" with the satellite, says Al Lopez, Manager of KTF and Remote Ranges Dept. 15419.

"Timing was everything," he says.

"Sandia's flight test ranges at Tonopah and Kauai are enabling capabilities that have historically made critical contributions to many of the largest programs undertaken by Sandia," says Dick. "They also have been a powerful tool in attracting and satisfying customers for our engineering services." -- John German

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Gas-plume imager scans refineries in field testing

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By Nancy Garcia

A gas-plume imager developed by Sandia has left the lab and entered the field in the past year, undergoing refinery field tests from California to England.

The tests suggest that imaging technology is a viable alternative to hand-held sniffers currently used to detect leaks, says principal investigator Tom Kulp (8356). The Environmental Protection Agency is examining permitting use of the shoulder-carried imager as an alternate work practice for mandatory monitoring of refinery piping and valves. The petroleum industry sees gas imaging as a time- and cost-efficient alternative.

The imager (which resembles a large camcorder) works using the backscatter absorption gas imager (BAGI) method, in which a scene suspected of containing a leak is illuminated with infrared laser light. The laser light is reflected by the background of the scene and absorbed by the leaking gas. A camera in the device gives a visual display of the scene with the plume appearing as a darker region. The device was created by Tom and colleagues Karla Armstrong (8356), Dahv Kliner (8356), Ricky Sommers (8356), and Sal Birtola (8350).

With support from DOE's Office of Fossil Energy and Energy Efficiency, the technology has been under development several years as a way to find leaks more quickly, to help protect the environment, and make monitoring refineries more efficient.

"Our biggest contribution has been to prove that a gas imager can be reduced to a format useable by a single operator under battery power," Tom says. "This has been accomplished using new nonlinear optical and fiber laser technologies."

The field trials started with a day at a refinery in nearby Martinez in January 2003, where the team established a method for carrying the imager around the piping and double-checked its performance. Then a longer field trial followed for four days in February in Beaumont, Texas. There, committee members from the American Petroleum Institute's Smart Leak Detection and Repair Project organized tests observed by the EPA, oil companies, and potential commercialization partners. The tests compared the standard existing leak detection method using sniffers, called Method 21, and potential alternative technologies like BAGI. Also, leaks were entirely encapsulated and the flow rate measured.

Tom says the imager spotted 41 leaks and missed three whose flow rate was below 40 grams/hour, the current performance target stated by EPA. The EPA currently regulates leaks based on concentration, but is interested in detecting the presence of something with a particular flow rate.

"Our system images the plume so you get a visual sense of the flow rate," he says. If the approach is proven equivalent to existing technology, it could be approved for monitoring refinery leaks in addition to the already-approved Method 21. "The idea that there is a visual record is also useful," he says.

In August, the team traveled to a Chicago suburb for tests, funded by the state of Texas, that compared the laser imager to so-called "passive" imagers that sense thermal differences between the gas and its background without illuminating the scene with laser light.

Shortly after that, they traveled to Southampton, England, to show the technology to regulators and refinery representatives from England, Belgium, and the Netherlands. Jeff Siegell, chair of the Smart Leak Detection and Repair Project, organized the demonstration so European industry and government officials would be aware of other methods to potentially enforce fugitive emission laws.

Coming up this winter is another large Texas test, sponsored by Shell Oil, in which the technology is being evaluated for its usefulness in a refinery setting over six months.

Meanwhile, Sandia has been interacting with companies that would manufacture a commercial version of the device if it's licensed and marketed. "I think there's going to be a lot of development," Tom says. Even since the imager's development began, cameras and lasers have advanced, he notes, and they are continuing to do so. "In five years, the technologies used will be completely different." - - Nancy Garcia

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Last modified: December 4, 2003

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