Date: 23 October 1996
Generic ArcView Object-Style Scripts Library
Sandia National Laboratories
GAVOS is a form of middleware that connects a client application
to an ESRI® ArcViewTM
server. This GAVOS User Document explains what GAVOS is,
how it may help you, what it requires, and how to install and
use it. Note that the "user" that the document refers
to is you, the applications developer, not the end user.
In writing this document, we have made the assumption that you
know how to operate ArcView, hopefully at least some Avenue, and
your chosen client language. Even if your client language is not
Visual Basic, some knowledge of it will be useful in order to
run the example client and translate its code for your needs.
The GAVOS User Document is divided into three sections:
What is GAVOS ?
GAVOS is a form of middleware for linking a generic GIS server,
the ESRI® ArcViewTM
GIS and its AvenueTM language,
to one of several possible clients. On the server, GAVOS is a
script library for ArcView, written in Avenue. GAVOS also includes
a sample client, written in Visual Basic. Client and server are
connected with the Windows DDE (dynamic data exchange) protocol.
(Note that GAVOS is pronounced in a Spanish manner as "GAH-vose.")
Back to Contents
The Advantages of GAVOS
The simplest way to connect ArcView to a client is to create Avenue code in the client and send it to the server. The problems with this approach are: (a) the client-side programmer must know Avenue; (b) the code is 'hard' (fixed) and wasteful; (c) the coding is tedious, verbose, and executes slowly since the client/server connection must be used constantly to both set and inquire about the state of the server.
GAVOS avoids or minimizes writing hard code on the client side.
Instead of sending literal instructions to Avenue, the client
programmer makes requests of pre-defined pseudo-objects (scripts
written in an object style) on the server side. The object then
performs an action and returns a status code, or it returns a
status code and a comma-delimited string of answers ("a,
b, 1, 2").
Other advantages of using GAVOS include:
What GAVOS can do for
GAVOS is ideal for applications that do not need complete GIS
functionality, but which also have requirements that a GIS cannot
meet. Examples are:
Figure 1: GAVOS Visual Basic client on left, ArcView server
The GAVOS server consists of several Avenue scripts beginning
with g. These scripts provide 'wrappers' or pseudo-objects
around several of the ArcView/Avenue objects. For instance, the
gView script is a wrapper that simplifies the functionality of
the ArcView View class. The gView object simplifies the most powerful
operations of a View.
Within each pseudo-object are requests, which begin with r.
For example, gView has a rZoomToTheme request that accepts two
arguments. These arguments are the View, and the Theme. When the
request is submitted, the specified View will zoom to the extent
of the specified Theme (layer). The requests have long, descriptive
names with the assumption that the user will copy-and-paste them
using the Windows clipboard.
The gATester script includes sample invocations of all the objects. By uncommenting lines in this script, the user can learn how each object and request behaves. The gATester script is also intended for use in copy-and-paste operations into new scripts. Additional objects/scripts and requests are listed below. Back to Contents
GAVOS comes with a sample client application, written in Visual Basic 3.0 and 4.0 (16 and 32-bit) called VBGAVOS. This sample contains the subroutines that implement the Poke-and-Look technique (see Section 3). These Subs and Functions hide most of the details of the conversation between client and server. The user can use VBGAVOS as a starting point for their own applications, or copy the needed functions into another VB project. Back to Contents
GAVOS should be usable with any other Windows applications that
speaks DDE. The VBGAVOS Visual Basic code is a good starting point
for writing new clients (see Section 3). Sandia has developed
PowerBuilder routines that may be made available if there is sufficient
interest. A PowerBuilder for Macintosh client that uses AppleScript
is under development. Back to Contents
Questions, comments, and suggestions on GAVOS and the documentation are welcome. Please contact John Ganter, firstname.lastname@example.org Back to Contents
The GAVOS distribution consists of these files:
0readme.txt : readme file similar to this section
install.ave : installer script for GAVOS server
gavos##.odb : GAVOS server source file, where "##" indicates the version
gavos##.htm : GAVOS documentation, in HTML format
gfigNN.GIF : figures for documentation
VB3 : directory for Visual Basic client
VB3 : directory for Visual Basic 3.0 client
VB4-16 : directory for Visual Basic 4.0, 16-bit client
VB4-32 : directory for Visual Basic 4.0, 32-bit client
VSVBX : directory for VSVBX custom control
VSOCX : directory for VSOCX custom control
Back to Contents
If you have a floppy with files:
1 : copy files to a working directory
If you have an .exe self-extracting archive:
1 : move file to a directory
2 : at a DOS prompt, type 'gavos##.exe'
3 : the files will extract
Back to Contents
Please follow these steps to install the GAVOS server:
1 : start ArcView if it is not running
2 : in the Project window, choose Scripts and New button to make a script
3 : select the window of the new script
4 : select Script/Properties and set its name to "Install"
5 : select Script/Load Text File
6 : find the install.ave file and load it
7 : select Script/Compile
8 : select Script/Run
9 : you will be asked to find the gavos##.odb file
10 : you will then be asked whether to add (or replace if it exists) each script in the library.
11 : finally, you will be asked if you want to compile the added scripts. Choose "YES"
Save the ArcView Project file. You will need the path and name
for the client (below).
Note on Server Upgrading: If you are upgrading, not all files need to be replaced. When you run the install.ave script, it will show you the old and new dates/versions of files (Step 10 above). If a newer version is available, choose to install it. Otherwise, go to the next file. Back to Contents
The gATester script is convenient for testing out the GAVOS server
and making sure that everything is working before trying a client
By uncommenting the lines of gATester, you can test each object
and request. The gFTab object, rSetSelectionByValue request is
a good one to start with.
Note: If you wish to use gATester exactly as it is, you will need to make a Mexico View using the sample data that come with ArcView. Make a new view. Name the view Mexico. Now add a theme called State that uses the ..AVDATANAMERICAMEXICOMEXICO sample data. Back to Contents
VBGAVOS is supplied as a Visual Basic 3.0 project (VBGAVOS.MAK),
and two VB 4.0 projects (16 and 32-bit), and related files. Thus
the user can inspect, run, and modify the code.
Note: VBGAVOS makes use of the VSIndexTab, VSElastic and VSAwk custom controls in the VideoSoft VSVBX/VSOCX product. If you do not have this control installed on your system, you can use the demo copy that is supplied with GAVOS. If you find this product useful, a licensed copy can be ordered using the information in the Help file. Use the following files in Step 2 below:
1 : Copy all the files in the ..VB3 or ..VB4-16 or ..VB4-32
directory to a suitable location
2 : Install the VideoSoft controls. Copy the appropriate VS files to your windowssystem directory:
3 : Either double-click on VBGAVOS.MAK, or start VB and open VBGAVOS.MAK.
4 : The project should open, and show the related files in the
Project window. The VSElastic and other VideoSoft controls should
load into the Toolbox. You are now in VB design mode. If you have
problems with the controls not loading in VB4, try opening the
VB3 project in VB4. VB4 will import the VB3 project and update
Note: In VB3 design mode, you change VSTabs by double-clicking
the right mouse button on the VSTabs.
5 : Open the VBGAVOS.FRM file. Go to the Form object, and the
Load procedure. Set two variables for your particular installation:
rundir = "C:BARCVIEWBIN"
project_file = "D:Agavosg1gavos.APR"
The rundir variable is the location of the ArcView executable. VBGAVOS will use this to start ArcView if it is not running. The project_file variable is the location and name of the ArcView Project file (.APR) that the GAVOS server resides in.
Installation is complete! Go on to the next section for a tour.
Back to Contents
Run the VBGAVOS project. If ArcView is not running, there will
be a delay as VBGAVOS starts it up. Try the various controls on
the menus; you can follow the tour below. When you wish to see
how a control operates, stop VB and double-click on the control
to see its associated code. Or you can push the VB Pause
button, then the Step button, then the control that you
are interested in. Additional Step pushes will step through
The Objects tab has controls to establish a simple conversation.
The DeskTop tab has buttons to arrange the client and server
in various ways on the Windows desktop. Press the GAVOS beside
ArcView button to have the client and server share the desktop.
Note: The VB integrated development environment (IDE) tends
to cover up the ArcView GUI. Now that you have customized the
client (in Client Installation), you can make an executable and
run it. Choose File/Make Exe File
to do this. Then
you can run VBGAVOS as a standalone Windows application, and the
IDE will not be involved.
The Client/Server tab demonstrates the interesting View and FTab operations.
Note: Clicking on a Field will list all the values in the
FTab for that Field. This can be a long list. We have found that
this operation is memory sensitive, and it may not complete for
some lists on some machines with smaller amounts of memory (<
16 megs). There seems to be constraint on the number of characters
that can come across, but it does not seem to correspond to published
The Server Events tab shows an example of a server event, where ArcView sends a message to the VB client. This is a valuable feature, because it means the server can notify the client of random events like when an end-user selects a feature on a View, or when the user presses a button to indicate that they are finished and want to return to the client.
In the VB Client
This concludes the client testing. Remember to look at the sample code behind the VB controls that interest you. This will show you how to tailor GAVOS to your own needs. Back to Contents
The change log shows planned and completed changes, the date proposed,
and the date and version that the change was completed (if completed).
|01||gFTab object: multiselect: capability to select a list of features||01-25-96||02-07-96||0.2|
|02||gView object: add zoom to selected features request||01-25-96||02-07-96||0.2|
|03||gAVApp object: add Save and Quit requests||01-25-96||02-07-96||0.2|
|04||gAAHeaderPuller: basic script manager object that reports on objects and their requests||01-25-96||02-09-96||0.2|
|05||gDoc object: rewrote gDocFinder to include DocWin object. Added Minimize/Maximize requests||02-05-96||02-13-96||0.2|
|06||gView: fixed rZoomToSelected request so that it accepts theme name and activates this theme||02-13-96||02-14-96||0.2|
|07||gView: added rThemeOn, rThemeOff, and rGetThemesOn requests||02-13-96||02-15-96||0.2|
|08||gView: added rZoomToTheme request||02-13-96||02-15-96||0.2|
|09||gView: added zoom to bounding box request||01-26-96||03-22-96||0.3|
|10||gDDE: new object for DDE link that will notify client of an event||01-26-96||03-25-96||0.3|
|11||avu-ScriptLibMgr, Usr: developed utility scripts that write scripts to/load scripts from ODB file||01-25-96||03-25-96||0.3|
|12||gFTab: rSetSelectionByIndex: this is a better-named version of rSetSelectionByStr, which has been retained for backward compatibility.||05-30-96||05-31-96||0.4|
|13||gFTab: rSetSelectionByValue: this allows selection by Field/Value, instead of just the Index||05-30-96||05-31-96||0.4|
|14||gAVApp: added rQuitNoSave request||05-30-96||05-31-96||0.4|
|15||gAVApp: modifed rMaximize and rMinimize requests so that a av.GetSymbolWin.Close command is given. This works around an ESRI bug that causes the SymbolWin to appear.||05-30-96||05-31-96||0.4|
|16||gFTab: rSetSelectionByValueAndZoom: this additional request is a workaround for a PowerBuilder client problem, and may be useful for others to use also.||07-09-96||07-23-96||0.5|
|17||NEW request: gFTab: rDefineByQueryString: sets the definition of a Theme so that features are shown or not shown||09-20-96||10-23-96||0.6|
|18||NEW request: gFTab: rDefineByValueList: sets the definition of a Theme so that features are shown or not shown||09-20-96||10-23-96||0.6|
|19||CHANGED request: gFTab: rSetSelectionByValue: now has a fieldtype argument following the field name||10-23-96||10-23-96||0.6|
|??||object to manage the GUI, especially simplifying it||01-25-96|
Back to Contents
GAVOS is a script library for connecting an ArcView GIS server to a variety of clients with minimal effort and maximum code reuse. This section of the user document is a detailed discussion of how GAVOS works and how it was built. It talks about what we did, but more importantly why we did it. As a result, a few parts of this document are extremely detailed and will not be meaningful to some readers -- they can be safely skipped. These sections are included as reminders of design decisions made, and issues that may need to be revisited. Back to Contents
GAVOS is an approach to linking a generic GIS server, the ArcView GIS and its Avenue language, to one of several possible clients. The simplest way to do this is to create Avenue code in the client and send it to the server. The problems with this approach are: (a) the client-side programmer must know Avenue; (b) the code is 'hard' (fixed) and wasteful; (c) the coding is tedious, verbose, and executes slowly since the client/server connection must be used constantly to both set and inquire about the state of the server.
GAVOS is an attempt to avoid or minimize writing hard code on
the client side. Instead of sending literal instructions to Avenue,
the client programmer makes requests of pre-defined pseudo-objects
(scripts written in an object-style) on the server side. The object
then performs an action and returns a status code, or it returns
a status code and a comma-delimited string of answers ("a,
b, 1, 2").
This distinction is analogous to two types of telephone conversations.
In the first, the client laboriously instructs the server (a clerk)
to walk to a shelf, look for items by moving their eyes left to
right and up and down, create a list of the items, and return
the list. This is a long, verbose, interactive conversation. In
the second conversation, the client determines that the server/clerk
supports a List request. The client makes this request.
The clerk then performs the operation in a manner which is private
with respect to the client, and returns an answer.
There are several advantages of the latter approach. The client does not need to know anything at all about how the items or 'shelves' are arranged, or how the 'clerk' works. The communication media becomes less important; the List request would work by telephone, mail, face-to-face conversation, etc. The List request can be completely rebuilt, as long as it is invoked in the same manner and returns results in the same way. Large investments can be made in optimizing the List request, because the request will serve any and all clients. In turn, this investment can be protected since the clients do not have to see how the request works. Back to Contents
A GAVOS conversation takes place using a dynamic data exchange
(DDE) link, a mature Microsoft communication protocol supported
by most Windows 3.x, 95, and NT applications (Microsoft 1993).
In DDE, the client in a conversation is termed the destination
and the server is termed the source. A conversation occurs
between a single source and destination, but a running application
can have more than one conversation active.
There are three types of links used in conversations:
Once a manual DDE link is established, an ArcView source/server
supports three types of methods across the link (Table 1).
|Method from client||Sends||Receives|
|LinkExecute||command, including run a script but without arguments||.|
|LinkPoke||a value to insert. Can be used to run a script with passed arguments in the form of a string.||.|
A DDE conversation is semantically constrained. All of the verbs
(i.e., Avenue commands) are available for use, but the only nouns
are strings. This prevents any direct passing of objects from
ArcView's rich object model. Instead, the objects must be referred
to by names. Strings can also be parsed (by previous agreement
on format) into lists of strings.
After making this discovery, we developed an approach to handle
it termed the Marionette Layer. The marionette layer is a means
of manipulating objects via strings only (Figure 2). The simplest
way is to merely send a request to an ArcView object (Figure 2,
Label A). This becomes unwieldy when instances of objects have
to be created and destroyed. The Marionette Layer works more effectively
when server scripts are written in an object style (Figure 2,
Label B). These pseudo-objects parse the information on the incoming
link, perform operations, and format and return a string.
Figure 2: Concept of a Marionette Layer
between a client and ArcView server which passes string data types
only. By having an implicit agreement between client and server,
objects can be manipulated by using strings as object 'handles.'
GAVOS and the Marionette Layer should also work using Remote Procedure Calls (RPC), a predominantly UNIX communications protocol that is also supported on Windows NT. On the server side, there are no anticipated changes to the code. On the client side, mechanisms would have to be developed to fill the role of a DDE control. A DDE control is a receptacle for the outgoing message in LinkExecute and LinkPoke, and the incoming message in a LinkRequest. The control thus hides details of the conversation from the applications programmer. Unlike DDE, RPC can operate between applications running on different computers. Back to Contents
We have discussed the client/server architecture of GAVOS, and
the communications protocols that allow it to engage in conversations
with clients. In this section, we focus on the core functionality
of GAVOS itself: the functions that it provides through Avenue
scripts that behave like objects.
Avenue is not a truly object-oriented language. It provides encapsulated, pre-defined objects which have properties and support 'requests' (methods). There is inheritance in the provided object model, and this helps the applications developer to understand the object model. For instance, a View is a type of Doc(ument) which inherits Doc properties (e.g., CreationDate) while adding its own specialized properties (e.g., Projection). The user cannot develop new objects. But the user can write pseudo-objects, which are scripts (essentially subroutines) that accept 'requests' in the form of arguments.
A greatly simplified GAVOS script appears in Figure 3. The name
is gAVApp; in the Hungarian notation this script is in the GAVOS
library (its name begins with g), and handles the ArcView
application. The sequence of operations is (keyed to the
(1), etc. labels in figure):
Thus GAVOS uses an object, "request, argument"
naming/calling syntax. An alternative is the "smartly-named
scripts" approach of Richards (1995).
Richards names scripts in a object.request format. From
a naming and calling perspective, the Richards approach is more
elegant. But we believe that the labor of constructing a separate
script (with header, compilation, etc.) for each request is undesirable.
Thus we employ a ArcTools-like approach wherein each Request is
handled by an ElseIf section in a single Object script.
Figure 3: Structure of a GAVOS script. See text for explanation
The "request, argument" format has caused some
problems. If the argument consists of a comma-delimited list,
List = ("a,b,c,d"), then using the List.AsTokens(",")
request on the argument will split it into more than just the
request and argument. One quick fix is the use a less common delimiter
(e.g., "request|argument"). A more elegant approach
would be to pass a Dictionary consisting of a String object for
the Request, and a List object for the arguments.
On occasion, scripts break the ArcView object hierarchy because
only names of objects, not objects themselves, can be passed.
For example, gFTab will accept a document name, get the
FTab object for it, then perform operations on the FTab
object. Ideally the object (the Doc) would be passed. Another
approach would be to use an object's name as a 'handle.' The object
would be passed among multiple scripts by using the name/handle
as a key in a shared Dictionary object. So far, the simpler name
approach seems adequate since fetching the object using the name
is a single, rapid Avenue request (typically, object = av.GetProject.FindDoc(strName_of_object)
Another refinement would be an object request broker script. This script would be called by the client. It would check the requested object against a Dictionary, and ensure that the requests and arguments were valid. It would then dispatch the request. An object request broker would be more elegant and probably more reliable than calling scripts directly, but the additional development effort and overhead does not seem justified at present. Back to Contents
GAVOS has several utility scripts (gAA prefix), and it
makes use of general-purpose Avenue utility scripts (avu-
prefix); see Ganter 1996. These scripts
are listed below.
Utilities for the GAVOS Manager/Developer
gAATemplate : standard template with headers for use in
developing new objects/scripts
gAAHeaderPullerCaller : extracts requests and arguments
from selected GAVOS scripts, in order to prepare a report for
avu-ScriptLibMgr : allows a library manager to review and
set an ObjectTag on any selected script(s). This ObjectTag is
a List containing a Date object and a Number object (a version
number). The library manager can then load the script(s) into
a portable Object Database (.ODB) file for distribution to users.
avu-ScriptLibUsr : allows a script library user to extract
scripts from a script library, i.e. an .ODB file. If a script
already exists, the user is shown the existing/new dates and version
numbers, and asked to decide whether the script should be replaced.
This script can be renamed and customized by the script library
manager to be an 'Installer' for a specific library, and to work
with only a specific .ODB file.
Utilities for the GAVOS User
Install : a version of avuScriptLibUsr (see above) that
has been customized to install a specific version of GAVOS.
gATester : script that lists all the GAVOS objects and requests. By uncommenting these lines, the various GAVOS objects can be called. This is useful for testing on the server side, without involving the client. Back to Contents
The GAVOS Visual Basic 3.0 client is a descendent of the BUSYBOARD
tutorial (Ganter 1995). While BUSYBOARD
did simple LinkExecute and LinkRequest operations, it would not
call server-side scripts with arguments, and receive data in reply.
GAVOS experiments led to the Poke-and-Request Approach which is
The client consists of a form containing an instance of a VideoSoft
VSTab VBX (Visual Basic custom control) and several instances
of the VSElastic VBX (see Figure 1). This results in a tabbed
form which adjusts itself automatically to various monitor resolutions.
Other VBXs on the form provide DDE controls to transmit and receive
DDE LinkExecutes, LinkRequests, etc.
There is no DDE method that combines a command with arguments
and returned information. The Poke-and-Request technique combines
a LinkPoke and a LinkRequest to deliver this functionality. Poke-and-Request
is encapsulated in several Visual Basic subroutines. The approach
consists of a Poke, with arguments, to an Avenue script on the
server. When finished, the script places a string into a predetermined,
hard-coded Avenue global variable. This string may simply be a
status code, or it may be a status code followed by a comma-delimited
list. When the Poke is complete, the client does a LinkRequest
to obtain the value of the global. It then strips the status code
from the first position in the string. If there are additional
characters, they are parsed into an array for convenient access
A more detailed explanation of Poke-and-Request is shown in Figure 4.
The sequence (keyed to the (1), etc. labels in the figure) is:
Figure 4: The Poke-and-Request technique
This explanation will seem very complex, because it exposes all
of the machinery underneath the GAVOS library. But because of
the encapsulated design, the GAVOS user (the application programmer)
really only needs to know the GAVOS Objects and Requests, and
how to call SLinkPokeNLook (or equivalent) with some simple
arguments. Everything else, including DDE, is hidden from view.
Back to Contents
The Poke-and-Request client-side subroutines can probably be emulated
in any Windows development environment that fully supports the
DDE methods (Execute, Request, Poke). By design, the server side
will hopefully not require any modification.
One difference that we have noted is how VB handles DDE conversations;
they are based on controls. Thus VB3 can easily detect events
in the controls which have to do with the DDE conversation. Other
environments, in contrast, use function calls for all DDE operations.
Sandia has developed a PowerBuilder client; this may be made available
if there is sufficient interest. A PowerBuilder for MacIntosh
client, which will use AppleScript instead of DDE, is under development.
Back to Contents
In some applications, random events can occur on the server that
the client needs to be aware of. For instance, an end-user might
close a window or push a button. The gDDE object can be used to
create DDEClient object on the ArcView server. This object can
then send a message to, for example, a Visual Basic form on the
client side. If the client-side programmer has associated some
code with the form.Update event, then this code will execute
when the server event occurs. It is questionable whether this
approach will work with RPC, since a loop would probably have
to be run continuously on the client side in order to detect the
new value. Some coding at a lower level of UNIX inter-process
communication would probably have to be done. Back to Contents
An initial concern was the speed and capacity of the DDE link.
The gAVApp.rLongList request was written to test performance on
the development machine (Dell XMT100, a 100mhz Pentium with 32
meg RAM, running Windows NT 3.51). Experiments showed that a Visual
Basic textbox control can LinkRequest up to 11400 characters.
Since the stated capacity of a textbox Text property is 32K, there
appears to be a limitation in the DDE link.
A speed test using gAVApp.rLongList was performed. On the server
alone, the request listed the numbers 1 to 2500 in 10.8 seconds.
Called through DDE, the request took 11.3 seconds. The delay was
about 0.5 seconds, or 5% overhead. This overhead is barely noticeable
by the user.
When the VSAwk VBX is used to parse the returned comma-delimited
string into an array, there is a significant delay. A list with
2500 items requires 24 seconds. We hope that the 32-bit OCX version
will be significantly faster. Since VSAwk is a generic and very
flexible component, it may be possible to write a much faster
special-purpose parser. Back to Contents
Our initial impression was that GAVOS should be a 'generic' script
library. This view has evolved. We still believe that there are
general classes of functionality that are required by several
applications. For instance, most applications need to highlight
polygons on a map. ArcView, along with some simple GAVOS scripts,
can fill this need. Thus GAVOS is 'generic.' But increasing generality
(i.e., supporting more and more applications) requires that more
and more Avenue functionality be encapsulated into objects. Taken
to extremes, this would mean writing object wrappers around every
ArcView object so that it can be marionetted with strings. For
some purposes GAVOS is appropriate, but we should avoid re-making
the entire Avenue language and object hierarchy.
For example, it is probably better to have a few GAVOS scripts
and a much larger number of utility scripts that fully utilize
Avenue without the restrictions of marionetting. These scripts
can then be used in general Avenue programming, and also be called
by the GAVOS scripts. Back to Contents
ESRI, 1995. ArcView version 2: Working
with Visual Basic, ArcView White Paper Series, July 1995.
Available at: http://www.esri.com/resources/papers/papers.html#VISUAL
Ganter, J.H., 1995. "Inter-Application
Communication (IAC) Using ESRI Software and Other Development
Tools," Proceedings of the 1995 ESRI User Conference
(SAND 95-0397). Abstract on CD-ROM and WWW: http://www.esri.com/resources/userconf/proc95/to250/p248.html
Details at: http://www.sandia.gov/gis/tutrs/iactut2.html
Ganter, J.H., 1996. ArcView/Avenue: Coding
Styles and Utility Scripts for Efficient Development. Proceedings
of the 1996 ESRI User Conference (SAND 96-1371C). Abstract
on CD-ROM and WWW: http://www.esri.com/external/resources/userconf/proc96/TO200/PAP160/P160.HTM.
Paper and code at: http://www.sandia.gov/gis/tech/avcsus.htm
Microsoft, 1993. Communicating with Other
Applications. Chapter 21 in Visual Basic 3.0 Programmers Guide.
Richards, James. 1995. "Advanced Application
Development with ArcView2," Proceedings of the 1995
ESRI User Conference. Abstract on CD-ROM and WWW: http://www.esri.com/resources/userconf/proc95/to150/p108.html
Back to Contents